Critical infrastructure

On Sunday evening, Gov. John Bel Edwards issued a 'stay at home' order for the State of Louisiana, after also announcing the state had the largest growth rate of the novel coronavirus in the entire world.

That's compared to any state or country, the governor said.

As part of the 'stay at home' order, the governor said that the state is following guidelines from the Department of Homeland Security, specifically their Cybersecurity and Infrastructure department, as to who goes to work and who does not.

The list of sectors which will remain open as 'critical' or 'essential' include (scroll to bottom for those that shall remain home):

Chemical sector

The Chemical Sector—composed of several hundred thousand U.S. chemical facilities in a complex, global supply chain—converts various raw materials into more than 70,000 diverse products that are essential to modern life. Based on the end product produced, the sector can be divided into five main segments, each of which has distinct characteristics, growth dynamics, markets, new developments, and issues:

  • Basic chemicals
  • Specialty chemicals
  • Agricultural chemicals
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Consumer products

Critical Manufacturing sector

The Critical Manufacturing Sector identified several industries to serve as the core of the sector:

  • Primary Metals Manufacturing
    • Iron and Steel Mills and Ferro Alloy Manufacturing
    • Alumina and Aluminum Production and Processing
    • Nonferrous Metal Production and Processing
  • Machinery Manufacturing
    • Engine and Turbine Manufacturing
    • Power Transmission Equipment Manufacturing
    • Earth Moving, Mining, Agricultural, and Construction Equipment Manufacturing
  • Electrical Equipment, Appliance, and Component Manufacturing
    • Electric Motor Manufacturing
    • Transformer Manufacturing
    • Generator Manufacturing
  • Transportation Equipment Manufacturing
    • Vehicles and Commercial Ships Manufacturing
    • Aerospace Products and Parts Manufacturing
    • Locomotives, Railroad and Transit Cars, and Rail Track Equipment Manufacturing

Products made by these manufacturing industries are essential to many other critical infrastructure sectors. The Critical Manufacturing Sector focuses on the identification, assessment, prioritization, and protection of nationally significant manufacturing industries within the sector that may be susceptible to man made and natural disasters.

Dams sector

There are more than 90,000 dams in the United States—approximately 65 percent are privately owned and approximately 80 percent are regulated by state dams safety offices. The Dams Sector has interdependencies with a wide range of other sectors, including:

Defense industrial base sector

The Defense Industrial Base Sector is the worldwide industrial complex that enables research and development, as well as design, production, delivery, and maintenance of military weapons systems, subsystems, and components or parts, to meet U.S. military requirements. The Defense Industrial Base partnership consists of Department of Defense components, more than 100,000 Defense Industrial Base companies and their subcontractors who perform under contract to the Department of Defense, companies providing incidental materials and services to the Department of Defense, and government-owned/contractor-operated and government-owned/government-operated facilities. Defense Industrial Base companies include domestic and foreign entities, with production assets located in many countries. The sector provides products and services that are essential to mobilize, deploy, and sustain military operations. The Defense Industrial Base Sector does not include the commercial infrastructure of providers of services such as power, communications, transportation, or utilities that the Department of Defense uses to meet military operational requirements. These commercial infrastructure assets are addressed by other Sector-Specific Agencies.

Emergency services sector

The mission of the Emergency Services Sector is to save lives, protect property and the environment, assist communities impacted by disasters, and aid recovery during emergencies.

Five distinct disciplines compose the ESS, encompassing a wide range of emergency response functions and roles:

  • Law Enforcement
  • Fire and Rescue Services
  • Emergency Medical Services
  • Emergency Management
  • Public Works

The ESS also provides specialized emergency services through individual personnel and teams. These specialized capabilities may be found in one or more various disciplines, depending on the jurisdiction:

  • Tactical Teams (i.e., SWAT)
  • Hazardous Devices Team/Public Safety Bomb Disposal
  • Public Safety Dive Teams/Maritime Units
  • Canine Units
  • Aviation Units (i.e., police and medevac helicopters)
  • Hazardous Materials (i.e., HAZMAT)
  • Search and Rescue Teams
  • Public Safety Answering Points (i.e., 9-1-1 call centers)
  • Fusion Centers
  • Private Security Guard Forces
  • National Guard Civil Support

Energy sector

The energy infrastructure is divided into three interrelated segments: electricity, oil, and natural gas. The U.S. electricity segment contains more than 6,413 power plants (this includes 3,273 traditional electric utilities and 1,738 nonutility power producers) with approximately 1,075 gigawatts of installed generation. Approximately 48 percent of electricity is produced by combusting coal (primarily transported by rail), 20 percent in nuclear power plants, and 22 percent by combusting natural gas. The remaining generation is provided by hydroelectric plants (6 percent), oil (1 percent), and renewable sources (solar, wind, and geothermal) (3 percent). The heavy reliance on pipelines to distribute products across the nation highlights the interdependencies between the Energy and Transportation Systems Sector.

The reliance of virtually all industries on electric power and fuels means that all sectors have some dependence on the Energy Sector. The Energy Sector is well aware of its vulnerabilities and is leading a significant voluntary effort to increase its planning and preparedness. Cooperation through industry groups has resulted in substantial information sharing of best practices across the sector. Many sector owners and operators have extensive experience abroad with infrastructure protection and have more recently focused their attention on cybersecurity.

Financial sector

The Financial Services Sector includes thousands of depository institutions, providers of investment products, insurance companies, other credit and financing organizations, and the providers of the critical financial utilities and services that support these functions. Financial institutions vary widely in size and presence, ranging from some of the world’s largest global companies with thousands of employees and many billions of dollars in assets, to community banks and credit unions with a small number of employees serving individual communities. Whether an individual savings account, financial derivatives, credit extended to a large organization, or investments made to a foreign country, these products allow customers to:

  1. Deposit funds and make payments to other parties
  2. Provide credit and liquidity to customers
  3. Invest funds for both long and short periods
  4. Transfer financial risks between customers

Food & Agriculture sector

The Food and Agriculture Sector is almost entirely under private ownership and is composed of an estimated 2.1 million farms, 935,000 restaurants, and more than 200,000 registered food manufacturing, processing, and storage facilities. This sector accounts for roughly one-fifth of the nation's economic activity.

Healthcare & Public Health sector

The Healthcare and Public Health Sector protects all sectors of the economy from hazards such as terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. Because the vast majority of the sector's assets are privately owned and operated, collaboration and information sharing between the public and private sectors is essential to increasing resilience of the nation's Healthcare and Public Health critical infrastructure. Operating in all U.S. states, territories, and tribal areas, the sector plays a significant role in response and recovery across all other sectors in the event of a natural or manmade disaster. While healthcare tends to be delivered and managed locally, the public health component of the sector, focused primarily on population health, is managed across all levels of government: national, state, regional, local, tribal, and territorial.

Information Technology sector

The Information Technology Sector is central to the nation's security, economy, and public health and safety as businesses, governments, academia, and private citizens are increasingly dependent upon Information Technology Sector functions. These virtual and distributed functions produce and provide hardware, software, and information technology systems and services, and—in collaboration with the Communications Sector—the Internet. The sector's complex and dynamic environment makes identifying threats and assessing vulnerabilities difficult and requires that these tasks be addressed in a collaborative and creative fashion.

Information Technology Sector functions are operated by a combination of entities—often owners and operators and their respective associations—that maintain and reconstitute the network, including the Internet. Although information technology infrastructure has a certain level of inherent resilience, its interdependent and interconnected structure presents challenges as well as opportunities for coordinating public and private sector preparedness and protection activities.

Nuclear Reactors, Materials, and

Waste sector

99 Active and 18 Decommissioning Power Reactors in 30 states that generate nearly 20 percent of the nation’s electricity. In the United States, there have been no civilian deaths associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant since the technology’s introduction over 60 years ago, making nuclear power one of the safest forms of energy in the country

31 Research and Test Reactors located at universities and national labs. These reactors produce medical and industrial isotopes used to treat cancer and perform radiographic services, as well as to conduct academic research across multiple fields, including chemistry, physics, and material science.

8 Active Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities that are responsible for the production and reprocessing of nuclear reactor fuel. These facilities take natural uranium from the ground and enrich it to approximately 5 percent Uranium-235. This enriched uranium is turned into solid Uranium Dioxide fuel pellets for use in nuclear reactors.

More than 20,000 licensed users of radioactive sources. These radioactive sources are used for medical diagnostics and treatment in hospitals, depth measurements at oil and gas drilling sites, sterilization at food production facilities, research in academic institutions, and examining packages and cargo at security checkpoints.

Over 3 million yearly shipments of radioactive materials. Special security measures are taken when radioactive materials are shipped to ensure the safety of the transportation workers, and to prevent theft or sabotage of the radioactive material itself.

Transportation Systems sector

  • Aviation includes aircraft, air traffic control systems, and about 19,700 airports, heliports, and landing strips. Approximately 500 provide commercial aviation services at civil and joint-use military airports, heliports, and sea plane bases.  In addition, the aviation mode includes commercial and recreational aircraft (manned and unmanned) and a wide-variety of support services, such as aircraft repair stations, fueling facilities, navigation aids, and flight schools.
  • Highway and Motor Carrier encompasses more than 4 million miles of roadway, more than 600,000 bridges, and more than 350 tunnels. Vehicles include trucks, including those carrying hazardous materials; other commercial vehicles, including commercial motorcoaches and school buses; vehicle and driver licensing systems; traffic management systems; and cyber systems used for operational management.
  • Maritime Transportation System consists of about 95,000 miles of coastline, 361 ports, more than 25,000 miles of waterways, and intermodal landside connections that allow the various modes of transportation to move people and goods to, from, and on the water.
  • Mass Transit and Passenger Rail includes terminals, operational systems, and supporting infrastructure for passenger services by transit buses, trolleybuses, monorail, heavy rail—also known as subways or metros—light rail, passenger rail, and vanpool/rideshare. Public transportation and passenger rail operations provided an estimated 10.8 billion passenger trips in 2014.
  • Pipeline Systems consist of more than 2.5 million miles of pipelines spanning the country and carrying nearly all of the nation's natural gas and about 65 percent of hazardous liquids, as well as various chemicals. Above-ground assets, such as compressor stations and pumping stations, are also included.
  • Freight Rail consists of seven major carriers, hundreds of smaller railroads, over 138,000 miles of active railroad, over 1.33 million freight cars, and approximately 20,000 locomotives. An estimated 12,000 trains operate daily. The Department of Defense has designated 30,000 miles of track and structure as critical to mobilization and resupply of U.S. forces.
  • Postal and Shipping moves about 720 million letters and packages each day and includes large integrated carriers, regional and local courier services, mail services, mail management firms, and chartered and delivery services.

Water & Wastewater sector

There are approximately 153,000 public drinking water systems and more than 16,000 publicly owned wastewater treatment systems in the United States. More than 80 percent of the U.S. population receives their potable water from these drinking water systems, and about 75 percent of the U.S. population has its sanitary sewerage treated by these wastewater systems.

The Water and Wastewater Systems Sector is vulnerable to a variety of attacks, including contamination with deadly agents; physical attacks, such as the release of toxic gaseous chemicals; and cyberattacks. The result of any variety of attack could be large numbers of illnesses or casualties and/or a denial of service that would also impact public health and economic vitality. The sector is also vulnerable to natural disasters. Critical services, such as firefighting and healthcare (hospitals), and other dependent and interdependent sectors, such as EnergyFood and Agriculture, and Transportation Systems, would suffer negative impacts from a denial of service in the Water and Wastewater Systems Sector.

Gov. Edwards released an initial proclamation that closed the following:

  • Gatherings are limited to no more than 50 people.
  • Casinos and bars will be closed.
  • Restaurants will be closed to patrons eating on site. Take-out, drive-through and delivery orders are allowed.
  • Movie theaters will be closed.
  • Gyms and studios

With his newest proclamation, requiring a stay-at-home policy for Louisiana, the governor added the following to the list:

  • All places of public amusement, whether indoor or outdoor, including but not limited to: places with amusement rides, carnivals, amusement parks, water parks, trampoline parks, aquariums, zoos, museums, arcades, fairs, pool halls, children's play centers, playgrounds, theme parks, any theaters, concert and music halls, adult entertainment venues, racetracks, and other similar businesses
  • All personal care and grooming businesses, including but not limited to: barber shops, beauty salons, nail salons, spas, massage parlors, tattoo parlors, and other similar businesses
  • All malls, except for stores in a mall that have a direct outdoor entrance and exit that provide essential services and products as provided by CISA guidelines

Businesses closed to the public pursuant to this provision shall not be prohibited from conducting necessary activities such as payroll, cleaning services, maintenance, or upkeep as necessary.

The governor recommended that employees of larger companies, or companies not specifically covered by this order, should contact their management staff to determine exactly how the company intends to address the stay at home order, if they have not already done so.

Any business not covered by the guidance from CISA and not ordered temporarily closed shall reduce operations to continue with minimum contact with members of the public and essential employees, while requiring proper social distancing.

Further, the 10-person limitation on gathering size shall apply to such business operations.

The stay at home order still allows residents to:

  1. Go to grocery or warehouse stores
  2. Pickup food from restaurants
  3. Go to pharmacies
  4. Go to the doctor's office, should the doctor allow it

You can also:

  1. Care for or support a friend or family member
  2. Take a walk, ride your bike, hike, jog and be in nature for exercise - just keep at least six feet between you and others
  3. Walk your pets and take them to veterinarian if necessary
  4. Help someone to get necessary supplies 
  5. Receive deliveries from any business which delivers

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